Congenital Glaucoma

الجلوكوما الخَلقية

 It is an elevated intraocular pressure due to drainage dysfunction of aqueous humor secreted by the ciliary body inside the eye. This causes accumulation of aqueous humor inside the eye, which leads to high intraocular pressure resulting damage to the optic nerve. It is congenital or occurs during first three four years of child age 

Causes

·        Occlusion or narrowing of the drainage opening.

·        Eye infections may obstruct drainage channels

·         Eye injury can damage the tissues of those channels.                                                          

 

Symptoms

·        Abnormal corneal enlargement.

·        Excessive tearing especially with exposure to flash light.

·        Photophobia.

·        Eye color changed to gray or pale blue.

 

Treatment

·        Eye drops.

·        Surgery


Important Tips

·        Increased size or changed color of the infant cornea, require medical attention.

·        Medication is very important to keep the intraocular pressures within normal level. Do not stop medication without doctor consultation.

·        Medication helps maintaining normal  intraocular pressure but not  improving  the vision

·        Experience any vision acuity changes or side effects require medical consultation. 

Corneal Transplantation

It is surgical procedure where an ophthalmologist, changes a cornea with a new one by donor and fix with tiny surgical stitches.


 Causes of corneal transplantation

·        Keratoconus, which is diseases, that increases gradually thinning of the cornea resulting blurry vision.

·        Hereditary corneal diseases.

·        Corneal infections that not responded to treatment.

·        Corneal ulcer.

·        Severe corneal injuries that caused corneal opacity.

·        Corneal burns.

·        Complications after eye surgeries like cataract or glaucoma.


 Corneal transplant Types:

Penetrating keratoplasty: in this procedure, the surgeon removes all the corneal layers, replaced with donor’s ones, and fixes it with sutures.

Lamellar keratoplasty: In this procedure, the surgeon replaces all the damaged corneal layers with healthy donor ones and fix by stitches.

Descemet’s Stripping Endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK): in which the inner layer of cornea is removed, and replaced with tissue but attached to the cornea with gas or air instead of stitches.


Corneal Rejection

Corneal rejection been expected at any time and this requires emergency admission in hospital, so if you have any of the following signs you should seek medical assistance directly:

o   Decrease in visual acuity.

o   Redness.

o   Foreign body sensation.

o   Tearing

o   Photophobia.

o   Pain.

Early diagnosis helps much in the successful treatment of corneal rejection. Usually, the physician prescribes certain medications to help your body accept the corneal graft.